Fox JG, Yan LL, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ, Shames B, Murphy JC, Hayward A, Belcher JC, Mendes EN. Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33:445-454.
Anonymous. Validation list no. 61. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1997; 47:601-602.
The genome of the type strain was sequenced as part of the GEBA (Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea) project.Publication:
Mukherjee S, Seshadri R, Varghese NJ, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Goker M, Coates RC, Hadjithomas M, Pavlopoulos GA, Paez-Espino D, et al. 1,003 reference genomes of bacterial and archaeal isolates expand coverage of the tree of life. Nat Biotechnol 2017; 35:676-683.
According to Rossi et al. 2010, the Helicobacter bilis strains can be divided into two distinct and divergent genomic groups. In the absence of a specific phenotype or pathotype to distinguish these groups they may be referred to as two genomospecies: Helicobacter bilis sensu stricto and Helicobacter sp. ‘FL56’. FL56 is a canine Helicobacter strain [see HÄNNINEN (M.L.), KARENLAMPI (R.I.), KOORT (J.M.), MIKKONEN (T.) and BJORKROTH (K.J.): Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 891–898. (Original article in IJSEM Online)].Publication:
Rossi M, Zanoni RG, Hanninen ML. Delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies: implications for systematics and evolution. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:2392-2397.
Polyphasic analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains, and the reference strains of flexispira taxa 2, 3, and 8 showed that they are members of the species Helicobacter bilis Fox et al. 1997.Publication:
Hanninen ML, Karenlampi RI, Koort JM, Mikkonen T, Bjorkroth KJ. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:891-898.
The full TRBA 466 classification is: risk group = 2, note = "t".