Fox JG, Yan LL, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ, Shames B, Murphy JC, Hayward A, Belcher JC, Mendes EN. Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33:445-454.
Anonymous. Validation list no. 61. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1997; 47:601-602.
The e-mail address of the corresponding author given in the effective publication is not functional any more.
The genome of the type strain was sequenced as part of the GEBA (Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea) project.Publication:
Mukherjee S, Seshadri R, Varghese NJ, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Goker M, Coates RC, Hadjithomas M, Pavlopoulos GA, Paez-Espino D, et al. 1,003 reference genomes of bacterial and archaeal isolates expand coverage of the tree of life. Nat Biotechnol 2017; 35:676-683.
According to Rossi et al. 2010, the Helicobacter bilis strains can be divided into two distinct and divergent genomic groups. In the absence of a specific phenotype or pathotype to distinguish these groups they may be referred to as two genomospecies: Helicobacter bilis sensu stricto and Helicobacter sp. ‘FL56’. FL56 is a canine Helicobacter strain [see HÄNNINEN (M.L.), KARENLAMPI (R.I.), KOORT (J.M.), MIKKONEN (T.) and BJORKROTH (K.J.): Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 891–898. (Original article in IJSEM Online)].Publication:
Rossi M, Zanoni RG, Hanninen ML. Delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies: implications for systematics and evolution. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:2392-2397.
Polyphasic analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains, and the reference strains of flexispira taxa 2, 3, and 8 showed that they are members of the species Helicobacter bilis Fox et al. 1997.Publication:
Hanninen ML, Karenlampi RI, Koort JMK, Mikkonen T, Bjorkroth KJ. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:891-898.
The full TRBA 466 classification is: risk group = 2, note = "t".